|Jens Henrik Pedersen☆☆☆☆☆
|If the earth is considered as a calorimeter, how much will our energy consumption heat up the atmosphere?|
Our energy consumption will heat up the atmosphere slightly more than the global warming - maybe twice the global warming.
For comparison the heat radiation from the sun is about 10,000 times greater.
Ice on the earth is a part of the calorimeter too. It cools down the global warming.
It looks like the radiation from the sun is decreasing at the moment.
The global warming would actually be worse, if this wasn't the case.
If everything is taken into account the radiation from the sun towards the earth is the same as the radiation back to space and it has always been so - CO2 or not.
The heat follows the wind.
The coriolis force makes wind turn right on the northern hemisphere and makes the wind turn left on the southern hemishpere. This creates two separate systems on the northern and the southern hemispheres.
Most of our energy production is on the northern hemisphere. It creates global warming despite the radiation from the sun actually is decreasing at the moment. The heat passes the north pole, melts some ice while and cools down a bit.
Our energy production is much smaller on the southern hemisphere and some places the decrease of the radiation from the sun makes the temperature lower than normal and the amount of ice on the south pole is actually increasing at the moment.
Clouds prevent radiation from returning to space.
In wintertime the temperature is easily 10 o C higher during nighttime when cloudy.
Clouds also prevent radiation towards earth.
In summertime the temperature is easily 10 o C lower during daytime when cloudy.
Clouds and CO2 don't increase or decrease the global warming.
They act like buffers and equalize the temperatures.
The temperatures on the moon vary between -170 o C and +130 o C.
The earth and the moon are about the same distance from the sun and if there were no clouds or greenhouse gases here, the temperatures would be similar on the earth.
Clouds, CO2 and other greenhouse gases prevent low temperatures on the earth, but they also prevent high temperatures.
They make the middle temperature on the north and south pole warmer and makes the middle temperature near equator lower.
The temperatures of the oceans near equator is decreasing at the moment.
All in all clouds, CO2 and other greenhouse gases don't change the middle temperature on earth.
They equalize it.
It is our energy consumption which causes the global warming.
Ice cools the temperature.
Ice uses energy to melt and ice lowers the temperature.
There are way more ice on the earth, than our energy consumption.
It will take under 1 % of all the ice on the earth to cover up for all fossil fuels both in the past and in the future.
Melting ice is a slow process and the heat has to move to the poles before it can melt any ice.
Making the heat is much quicker than melting ice.
Some of the energy also heats up the ground and the oceans.
The earth can be considered as a calorimeter, but it is more complexed.
There are other smaller systems within the system.
An ocean is separate systems.
A desert is separate syatems.
A rainforest is separate systems.
The north pole and the south pole are separate systems.
The conditions change when wind transports air from one system to another.
If there is ice in water in a calorimeter, the water is accepted as 0 o C.
This is not the case on the earth, where there are open connections between the iced waters on the poles and the warm waters near equator.
There is a way out of the increasing the temperatures from our energy consumption.
The energy from the sun has always caused waves and wind on the earth without increasing the temperature.
The sun even causes the temperature to rise maybe 10 o C on a single day and cooling it down again during the night without causing global warming.
If we can use the circuits of the energy from the sun, we can live without global warming.
Arguments for this theory.
The global warming is proportional with both CO2 and our energy consumption.
The global warming is accumulated. It has increased slowly over the last 100 years.
The behavior of the global warming points more in the direction of a calorimeter than prevention of radiation back to space.
Our energy consumption both heats up the atmosphere and produces CO2.
The CO2 theory neglects the heat from our energy consumption and says that CO2 prevents radiation back into space, so the atmosphere heats up with the same amount of heat, that was neglected in the first place. This doesn't seem likely.
|RE: Different kinds of heat12-03-2019 04:48|
|Jens Henrik Pedersen☆☆☆☆☆
|There are different kinds of heat.|
Concerning the global warming there are two kinds of heat - heat radiation and kinetic heat.
The heat from the sun is radiation and the heat from fossil fuels is kinetic.
The two kinds of heat have different properties.
Heat radiation can for example pass though areas with different kinetic heats and still keep the same heat energy.
Heat radiation is related to power. When the power source stops, the heat radiation stops.
Kinetic heat is related to energy. When the energy source stops, the kinetic heat energy is still in the matter.
CO2 is related to heat radiation. CO2 shadows or stops the radiation - both from and to the earth.
Ice is related the kinetic heat. When ice melts it takes out some of the kinetic heat energy.
Global warming is related to kinetic heat. It stays in the atmosphere even after the heat production has stopped.
The distinction between heat radiation and kinetic heat is blurred.
If a metal solid is warmed up, it first exchange kinetic heat with the surroundning. When it is very hot, it starts to glow and exchange heat as radiation.
|RE: The resources of fossil fuels are limited12-03-2019 05:00|
|Jens Henrik Pedersen☆☆☆☆☆
|The resources of fossil fuels are limited.|
There aren't enough fossil fuels on the earth to make it the end of the world.
It should be considered as pollution. Something not good for the world, but not as a threat to mankind. Like the pollution of the oceans.
The heat capacity of the atmosphere :
The mass of the atmosphere : 5.2 ∙ 1018 kg
The specific heat capacity of air : 1010 J / (kg ∙ K)
The heat capacity of the atmosphere : 1010 ∙ 5.2 ∙ 1018 = 5.25 ∙ 1021 J / K
Our energy comsumption :
Earth energy consumption 2015 (source : wikipedia) : 168,519 TWh = 6.067 ∙ 1020 J
The heat capacity of the atmosphere (see above) : 5.25 ∙ 1021 J / K
The increase of temperature per year (2015) is 6.067 ∙ 1020 / 5.25 ∙ 1021 = 0.12 K
The temperature will rise 1 o C every 8.7 year.
The resources of fossil fuels are limited.
Fossil fuel comsumption through time so far (2019) :
Oil consumption so far : 2180000 TWh = 7.85 ∙ 1021 J
Coal consumption so far : 2260000 TWh = 8.13 ∙ 1021 J
Gas consumption so far : 1170000 TWh = 4.20 ∙ 1021 J
Total consumption so far : (0.785 + 0.813 + 0.420) ∙ 1022 = 2.018 ∙ 1022 J
Fossil fuel resources left on the earth (2019) :
Oil resources left : 1646 billions bbl oil = 1.16 ∙ 1022 J
Coal resources left : 1.136 ∙ 1012 ton = 3.41 ∙ 1022 J
Gas resources left : 7000 Tcf = 7.84 ∙ 1021 J
Total resurces of fossil fuels left : (1.16 + 3.41 + 0.784) = 5.354 ∙ 1022 J
Total amount of fossil fuels both in the past and in the future :
Oil : (0.785 + 1.16) ∙ 1022 = 1.945 ∙ 1022 J
Coal : (0.813 + 3.41) ∙ 1022 = 4.223 ∙ 1022 J
Gas : (0.42 + 0.784) ∙ 1022 = 1.204 ∙ 1022 J
Total amount of fossil fuels : (1.945 + 4.223 + 1.204) ∙ 1022 = 7.372 ∙ 1022 J
We have used about 40 % of all the oil on the earth so far.
We have used about 20 % of all the coal on the earth so far.
We have used about 35 % of all the gas on the earth so far.
We have used about 28 % of all the fossil fuels on the earth so far.
The global warming is about 1.2 o at the moment.
Total amout of fossil fuels both in the past and in the future : 7.372 ∙ 1022 J
Ice uses 334 kJ to melt 1 kg
Total amount of ice to recover all fossil fuels both in the past and in the future : 7.372 ∙ 1022 / (334 ∙ 103) = 2.2 ∙ 1017 kg = 2.3 ∙ 105 km3
Ice totally on earth at present time : 29 ∙ 106 km3
All the fossil fuels both in the past and in the future will melt about 0.8 % of all the ice in the world.
Then the temperature will be back to normal, but there are uncertainties by putting it all so simple.