Jeg agter ikke at mundkløves med dig;men lige en belæring om det danske sprog- du har tilsyneladende opholdt dig for længe i engelsk talende lande.
POKKER er et kraftudtryk,som betegnes vulgært eller udannet,når det bruges overfor en person,som en grundløs tiltaleform.
Kjeld Jul skrev:
Ahh, der har vi balladen. Jeg var, og er, af den faste overbevisning, at din insisterende mangel på forståelse af artiklens faktiske indhold var rigeligt grundlag for understrege min pointe med det valgte kraftudtryk
|Barnes 2013. Revisiting the evidence linking Arctic Amplification 1 to extreme weather in midlatitudes. GRL (in press).
Previous studies have suggested that Arctic Amplification has caused planetary-scale waves to elongate meridionally and slow-down, resulting in more frequent blocking patterns and extreme weather. Here, trends in the meridional extent of atmospheric waves over North America and the North Atlantic are investigated in three reanalyses, and it is demonstrated that previously reported positive trends are an artifact of the methodology. No significant decrease in planetary-scale wave phase speeds are found except in OND, but this trend is sensitive to the analysis parameters. Moreover, the frequency of blocking occurrence exhibits no significant increase in any season in any of the three reanalyses, further supporting the lack of trends in wave speed and meridional extent. This work highlights that observed trends in midlatitude weather patterns are complex and likely not simply understood in terms of Arctic Amplification alone.
|Benner et al. 2013. Emiliania huxleyi increases calcification but not expression of calcification-related genes in long-term exposure to elevated temperature and pCO2. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B5, vol. 368 no. 1627
"Here, we tested the combined effect of pCO2 and temperature on the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi over more than 700 generations. Cells increased inorganic carbon content and calcification rate under warm and acidified conditions compared with ambient conditions, whereas organic carbon content and primary production did not show any change. In contrast to findings from short-term experiments, our results suggest that long-term acclimation or adaptation could change, or even reverse, negative calcification responses in E. huxleyi and its feedback to the global carbon cycle."
Carbon-Sequestering Ocean Plants May Cope With Climate Changes Over the Long Run
|Fyfe et al. 2013. Overestimated global warming over the past 20 years. Nature Climate Change 3, 767-769.
"Recent observed global warming is significantly less than that simulated by climate models. This difference might be explained by some combination of errors in external forcing, model response and internal climate variability."
|Freitas and McLean 2013. Update of the Chronology of Natural Signals in the Near-Surface Mean Global Temperature Record and the Southern Oscillation Index. International Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 4 No. 1A, 234-239.
"Time series for the Southern Oscillation Index and mean global near surface temperature anomalies are compared for the 1950 to 2012 period using recently released HadCRU4 data. The method avoids a focused statistical analysis of the data, in part because the study deals with smoothed data, which means there is the danger of spurious correlations, and in part because the El Niño Southern Oscillation is a cyclical phenomenon of irregular period. In these situations the results of regression analysis or similar statistical evaluation can be misleading. With the potential controversy arising over a particular statistical analysis removed, the findings indicate that El Nino-Southern Oscillation exercises a major influence on mean global temperature. The results show the potential of natural forcing mechanisms to account for mean global temperature variation, although the extent of the influence is difficult to quantify from among the variability of short-term influences."
|Legates et al. 2013. Climate Consensus and 'Misinformation': A Rejoinder to Agnotology, Scientific Consensus, and the Teaching and Learning of Climate Change. Science & Education (in press).
Agnotology is the study of how ignorance arises via circulation of misinformation calculated to mislead. Legates et al. (Sci Educ 22:2007–2017, 2013) had questioned the applicability of agnotology to politically-charged debates. In their reply, Bedford and Cook (Sci Educ 22:2019–2030, 2013), seeking to apply agnotology to climate science, asserted that fossil-fuel interests had promoted doubt about a climate consensus. Their definition of climate 'misinformation' was contingent upon the post-modernist assumptions that scientific truth is discernible by measuring a consensus among experts, and that a near unanimous consensus exists. However, inspection of a claim by Cook et al. (Environ Res Lett 8:024024, 2013) of 97.1 % consensus, heavily relied upon by Bedford and Cook, shows just 0.3 % endorsement of the standard definition of consensus: that most warming since 1950 is anthropogenic. Agnotology, then, is a two-edged sword since either side in a debate may claim that general ignorance arises from misinformation allegedly circulated by the other. Significant questions about anthropogenic influences on climate remain. Therefore, Legates et al. appropriately asserted that partisan presentations of controversies stifle debate and have no place in education.
|Svensmark, Henrik, Martin B. Enghoff, and Jens Olaf Pepke Pedersen. "Response of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (> 50 nm) to changes in ion-nucleation." arXiv preprint arXiv:1202.5156 (2012).
In experiments where ultraviolet light produces aerosols from trace amounts of ozone, sulphur dioxide, and water vapour, the number of additional small particles produced by ionization by gamma sources all grow up to diameters larger than 50 nm, appropriate for cloud condensation nuclei. This result contradicts both ion-free control experiments and also theoretical models that predict a decline in the response of larger particles due to an insufficiency of condensable gases (which leads to slower growth) and to larger losses by coagulation between the particles. This unpredicted experimental finding points to a process not included in current theoretical models, possibly an ion-induced formation of sulphuric acid in small clusters.
In experiments where ultraviolet light produces aerosols from trace amounts of ozone, sulphur dioxide, and water vapour, the number of additional small particles produced by ionization...
- vist samme artikel, som omtales på dansk her(?).
Men åbenbart ingen kioskbasker!
|Katz, Richard W., et al. "Uncertainty analysis in climate change assessments." Nature Climate Change 3.9 (2013): 769-771.
"Use of state-of-the-art statistical methods could substantially improve the quantification of uncertainty in assessments of climate change.
Because the climate system is so complex, involving nonlinear coupling of the atmosphere and ocean, there will always be uncertainties in assessments and projections of climate change. This makes it hard to predict how the intensity of tropical cyclones will change as the climate warms, the rate of sea-level rise over the next century or the prevalence and severity of future droughts and floods, to give just a few well-known examples. Indeed, much of the disagreement about the policy implications of climate change revolves around a lack of certainty. The forthcoming Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) and the US National Climate Assessment Report will not adequately address this issue. Worse still, prevailing techniques for quantifying the uncertainties that are inherent in observed climate trends and projections of climate change are out of date by well over a decade. Modern statistical methods and models could improve this situation dramatically."
|Stott et al. 2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 014024
"Climate models predict a large range of possible future temperatures for a particular scenario of future emissions of greenhouse gases and other anthropogenic forcings of climate. Given that further warming in coming decades could threaten increasing risks of climatic disruption, it is important to determine whether model projections are consistent with temperature changes already observed. This can be achieved by quantifying the extent to which increases in well mixed greenhouse gases and changes in other anthropogenic and natural forcings have already altered temperature patterns around the globe. Here, for the first time, we combine multiple climate models into a single synthesized estimate of future warming rates consistent with past temperature changes. We show that the observed evolution of near-surface temperatures appears to indicate lower ranges (5–95%) for warming (0.35–0.82 K and 0.45–0.93 K by the 2020s (2020–9) relative to 1986–2005 under the RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios respectively) than the equivalent ranges projected by the CMIP5 climate models (0.48–1.00 K and 0.51–1.16 K respectively). Our results indicate that for each RCP the upper end of the range of CMIP5 climate model projections is inconsistent with past warming."
Nyt studie af Juliane Klemm et al. viser,at de klimatiske betingelser i sibirisk Arktis i de sidste 4000 år har været meget lig de nuværende.
For 10000 - 4000 år siden var juli temperaturerne ca. 2 gr. højere end idag.
Redigeret d. 07-09-2013 12:05
|Veretenenko and Ogurtsov, 2013. Stratospheric Polar Vortex as a Possible Reason for Temporal Variations of Solar Activity and Galactic Cosmic Ray Effects on the Lower Atmosphere Circulation. Advances in Space Research (in press).
Possible reasons for a temporal instability of long-term effects of solar activity (SA) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) variations on the lower atmosphere circulation were studied. It was shown that the detected earlier ~60-year oscillations of the amplitude and sign of SA/GCR effects on the troposphere pressure at high and middle latitudes (Veretenenko and Ogurtsov, Adv.Space Res., 2012) are closely related to the state of a cyclonic vortex forming in the polar stratosphere. The intensity of the vortex was found to reveal a roughly 60-year periodicity affecting the evolution of the large-scale atmospheric circulation and the character of SA/GCR effects. An intensification of both Arctic anticyclones and mid-latitudinal cyclones associated with an increase of GCR fluxes at minima of the 11-year solar cycles is observed in the epochs of a strong polar vortex. In the epochs of a weak polar vortex SA/GCR effects on the development of baric systems at middle and high latitudes were found to change the sign. The results obtained provide evidence that the mechanism of solar activity and cosmic ray influences on the lower atmosphere circulation involves changes in the evolution of the stratospheric polar vortex.
|Du et al., 2013. The influence of water vapor absorption in the 290-350 nm region on solar radiance: Laboratory studies and model simulation. GRL (in press).
Water vapor is an important greenhouse gas in the earth's atmosphere. Absorption of the solar radiation by water vapor in the near UV region may partially account for the up to 30% discrepancy between the modeled and the observed solar energy absorbed by the atmosphere. But the magnitude of water vapor absorption in the near UV region at wavelengths shorter than 384 nm is not known. We have determined absorption cross sections of water vapor at 5 nm intervals in the 290-350 nm region, by using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Water vapor cross section values range from 2.94x10^-24 to 2.13x10^-25 cm^2/molecule in the wavelength region studied. The effect of the water vapor absorption in the 290-350 nm region on the modeled radiation flux at the ground level has been evaluated using radiative transfer model.
|Huntingford et al., 2013. No increase in global temperature variability despite changing regional patterns. Nature 500, 327-330.
Evidence from Greenland ice cores shows that year-to-year temperature variability was probably higher in some past cold periods1, but there is considerable interest in determining whether global warming is increasing climate variability at present2, 3, 4, 5, 6. This interest is motivated by an understanding that increased variability and resulting extreme weather conditions may be more difficult for society to adapt to than altered mean conditions3. So far, however, in spite of suggestions of increased variability2, there is considerable uncertainty as to whether it is occurring7. Here we show that although fluctuations in annual temperature have indeed shown substantial geographical variation over the past few decades2, the time-evolving standard deviation of globally averaged temperature anomalies has been stable. A feature of the changes has been a tendency for many regions of low variability to experience increases, which might contribute to the perception of increased climate volatility. The normalization of temperature anomalies2 creates the impression of larger relative overall increases, but our use of absolute values, which we argue is a more appropriate approach, reveals little change. Regionally, greater year-to-year changes recently occurred in much of North America and Europe. Many climate models predict that total variability will ultimately decrease under high greenhouse gas concentrations, possibly associated with reductions in sea-ice cover. Our findings contradict the view that a warming world will automatically be one of more overall climatic variation.
|Nature Editorial: The final assessment
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has provided invaluable evidence for policy-makers, but giant reports should give way to nimbler, more relevant research.
The first working group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will deliver its assessment of the science of global warming at a meeting in Stockholm next week. This will be the fifth time that the IPCC has delivered such an assessment; some 23 years have passed since the first effort. Many things have changed in that time; others have not. Regardless, it is time to rethink the IPCC. The organization deserves thanks and respect from all who care about the principle of evidence-based policy-making, but the current report should be its last mega-assessment.
For more than two decades, the depth and breadth of the IPCC's regular reports have expanded exponentially and in parallel with a truly breathtaking array of data. More climate models are running increasingly sophisticated calculations, and coordinated experiments are bolstering our understanding of the results. Most importantly, the panel has increased its confidence in the underlying message — that greenhouse gases are altering Earth's climate. No serious politician on the planet can now dispute that.
Unfortunately, one thing that has not changed is that scientists cannot say with any certainty what rate of warming might be expected, or what effects humanity might want to prepare for, hedge against or avoid at all costs. In particular, the temperature range of the warming that would result from a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is expected to be judged as 1.5–4.5 °C in next week's report — wider than in the last assessment and exactly what it was in the report of 1990. The governments of the world, to whom the IPCC reports, have made precious little headway in reducing emissions. And they appear in little hurry to do so. For all of these reasons, it would seem that a little reform is in order.
After the first working group publishes its findings next week, attention will turn to the second and third groups, which focus on impacts and mitigation, respectively, and are scheduled to deliver their results next year. The result of this process will be a kind of consensus document that scientists, non-governmental organizations, bureaucrats and elected officials around the world can turn to as they discuss — at times it can seem endlessly — how to confront the most complex environmental issue of our time.
The IPCC process remains a human endeavour and, as such, is subject to human error; the silly mistake in the previous report that Himalayan glaciers would melt completely by 2035 demonstrates this. But the rarity of such errors shows what a solid job the organization has done. Critics went through the rest of the more-than-900-page report with a fine-tooth comb but found little else of significance to crow about.
True, 'consensus' does not necessarily mean that everybody is entirely happy with judgements about how the science is framed. Many researchers felt that the fourth assessment underplayed the potential for rapid sea-level rise, for instance, and this time around, some fear that the IPCC is putting too much weight on a series of studies suggesting that the climate may be less sensitive to greenhouse gases than previously thought. In the end, however, it is abundantly clear that the IPCC has done its job and is delivering what international policy-makers need to do theirs. Yes, greenhouse gases are changing the climate. Yes, we are already seeing substantial impacts, and more are on the way. And yes, this adds up to a problem for society that is significant and warrants immediate attention.
But none of this is news, and that is the problem. The IPCC's fifth assessment will provide a comprehensive analysis of policy options and the scientific basis for the next round of climate negotiations, which are scheduled to come to a head in 2015. What is missing from these talks is not science but political ambition, which is ultimately a reflection of public support. The IPCC has a crucial role in this process and must remain the central authority on global warming. It is not clear, however, that to immediately launch into yet another comprehensive assessment — which would consume immeasurable time and energy, and would probably come to the same bottom-line conclusions — represents the best use of our scientific resources.
Instead, climate scientists should focus on smaller and more rapid assessments of more pressing questions that have a particular political interest and for which science is evolving quickly. These reports could look more like the panel's recent special report on extreme weather; longer and more detailed assessments could be performed as needed, when there is sufficient interest from the governments that the IPCC serves.
Such a structure might also help to avoid an unfortunate consequence of the current framework, which ensures that the IPCC's mega-assessments are out of date by the time they hit the streets. For the latest document, some 20 international teams participated in coordinated modelling experiments, providing the core climate projections that the global community will use in the coming years; this is one area in which the IPCC has clearly driven the science forward. However, owing to logistics and deadlines, scientists barely had time to conduct a preliminary analysis for the current assessment, and as a result it lacks the more detailed analyses and most of the new science being published in journals today.
Absent from next week's report, for instance, is recent and ongoing research on the rate of warming and what is — or is not — behind the plateau in average global temperatures that the world has experienced during the past 15 years. These questions have important policy implications, and the IPCC is the right body to answer them. But it need not wait six years to do so.
|Painter et al., 2013. End of the Little Ice Age in the Alps forced by industrial black carbon. PNAS (in press).
Glaciers in the European Alps began to retreat abruptly from their mid-19th century maximum, marking what appeared to be the end of the Little Ice Age. Alpine temperature and precipitation records suggest that glaciers should instead have continued to grow until circa 1910. Radiative forcing by increasing deposition of industrial black carbon to snow may represent the driver of the abrupt glacier retreats in the Alps that began in the mid-19th century. Ice cores indicate that black carbon concentrations increased abruptly in the mid-19th century and largely continued to increase into the 20th century, consistent with known increases in black carbon emissions from the industrialization of Western Europe. Inferred annual surface radiative forcings increased stepwise to 13–17 W/m^2 between 1850 and 1880, and to 9–22 W/m^2 in the early 1900s, with snowmelt season (April/May/June) forcings reaching greater than 35 W/m^2 by the early 1900s. These snowmelt season radiative forcings would have resulted in additional annual snow melting of as much as 0.9 m water equivalent across the melt season. Simulations of glacier mass balances with radiative forcing-equivalent changes in atmospheric temperatures result in conservative estimates of accumulating negative mass balances of magnitude -15 m water equivalent by 1900 and -30 m water equivalent by 1930, magnitudes and timing consistent with the observed retreat. These results suggest a possible physical explanation for the abrupt retreat of glaciers in the Alps in the mid-19th century that is consistent with existing temperature and precipitation records and reconstructions.
|Ogurtsov et al. 2013. New evidence of solar variation in temperature proxies from Northern Fennoscandia. Advances in Space Research 52, 1647-1654.
A new summer temperature proxy was built for northern Fennoscandia in AD 1000–2004 using parameters of tree growth from a large region, extending from the Swedish Scandes to the Kola Peninsula. It was found that century-scale (55–140 year) cyclicity is present in this series during the entire time interval. This periodicity is highly significant and has a bi-modal structure, i.e. it consists of two oscillation modes, 55–100 year and 100–140 year variations. A comparison of the century-long variation in the northern Fennoscandian temperature proxy with the corresponding variations in Wolf numbers and concentration of cosmogenic 10Be in glacial ice shows that a probable cause of this periodicity is the modulation of regional climate by the secular solar cycle of Gleissberg. This is in line with the results obtained previously for a more limited part of the region (Finnish Lapland: 68–70° N, 20–30° E). Thus the reality of a link between long-term changes in solar activity and climate in Fennoscandia has been confirmed. Possible mechanisms of solar influence on the lower troposphere are discussed.
|Ermolli et al., 2013. Recent variability of the solar spectral irradiance and its impact on climate modelling. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3945-3977.
"TSI alone does not adequately describe the solar forcing on the atmosphere and therefore SSI variations have to be taken into account in climate models. For many years, the canonical value of the average TSI was 1365.4 ± 1.3 Wm^-2 , whereas now the most accu- rate, and generally accepted, value is 1361 ± 0.5 Wm^-2 ( Kopp and Lean , 2011 ; Schmutz et al. , 2012 )."
|Palle, E., & Laken, B. A., 2013. What do we really know about cloud changes over the past decades? AIP Conference Proceedings vol. 1531, p. 664.
Clouds are a critical component of Earth's climate system. Although satellite-based irradiance measurements are available over approximately the past 30 years, difficulties in measuring clouds means it is unclear how global cloud properties have changed over this period. From the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) datasets we have examined the validity of long-term cloud changes. We find that for both datasets, low-level (>680mb) cloud changes are largely a reflection of higher-level (>680mb) variations. Linear trends from ISCCP also suggest that the dataset contains considerable features of an artificial origin. Despite this, an examination of ISCCP in relation to the MODIS dataset shows that over the past ten years of overlapping measurements between 60°N–60°S both datasets have been in close agreement (r = 0.63, p = 7×10^-4). Over this time total cloud cover has been relatively stable. Both ISCCP and MODIS datasets show a close correspondence to Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) over the Pacific region, providing a further independent validation of the datasets.
Redigeret d. 01-10-2013 02:04
Iflg. forskerne Knud Lassens og Peter Thejlls studie,kan en betydelig del af den nuværende havis`tilbagetrækning være en naturlig cyklus.
|Lehner, F., Born, A., Raible, C. C., & Stocker, T. F. (2013). Amplified inception of European Little Ice Age by sea ice-ocean-atmosphere feedbacks. Journal of Climate 26, 7586-7602:
The inception of the Little Ice Age (~1400–1700 AD) is believed to have been driven by an interplay of external forcing and climate system internal variability. While the hemispheric signal seems to have been dominated by solar irradiance and volcanic eruptions, the understanding of mechanisms shaping the climate on a continental scale is less robust. In an ensemble of transient model simulations and a new type of sensitivity experiments with artificial sea ice growth, the authors identify a sea ice–ocean–atmosphere feedback mechanism that amplifies the Little Ice Age cooling in the North Atlantic–European region and produces the temperature pattern suggested by paleoclimatic reconstructions. Initiated by increasing negative forcing, the Arctic sea ice substantially expands at the beginning of the Little Ice Age. The excess of sea ice is exported to the subpolar North Atlantic, where it melts, thereby weakening convection of the ocean. Consequently, northward ocean heat transport is reduced, reinforcing the expansion of the sea ice and the cooling of the Northern Hemisphere. In the Nordic Seas, sea surface height anomalies cause the oceanic recirculation to strengthen at the expense of the warm Barents Sea inflow, thereby further reinforcing sea ice growth. The absent ocean–atmosphere heat flux in the Barents Sea results in an amplified cooling over Northern Europe. The positive nature of this feedback mechanism enables sea ice to remain in an expanded state for decades up to a century, favoring sustained cold periods over Europe such as the Little Ice Age. Support for the feedback mechanism comes from recent proxy reconstructions around the Nordic Seas.
|Krivova, N. A., & Solanki, S. K. (2013). Models of Solar Total and Spectral Irradiance Variability of Relevance for Climate Studies. In Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System (CAWSES) (pp. 19-38). Springer Netherlands.
Har du adgang til de data , der ligger til grund for graferne ? link ?
|KFL, nej de har desværre ikke vedhæfte data til deres artikel og det har artiklen de citerede heller ikke.
|Scafetta, N. (2013). Discussion on climate oscillations: CMIP5 general circulation models versus a semi-empirical harmonic model based on astronomical cycles. Earth-Science Reviews.
|Almeida et al. 2013. Molecular understanding of sulphuric acid–amine particle nucleation in the atmosphere. Nature (in press).
Nucleation of aerosol particles from trace atmospheric vapours is thought to provide up to half of global cloud condensation nuclei1. Aerosols can cause a net cooling of climate by scattering sunlight and by leading to smaller but more numerous cloud droplets, which makes clouds brighter and extends their lifetimes2. Atmospheric aerosols derived from human activities are thought to have compensated for a large fraction of the warming caused by greenhouse gases2. However, despite its importance for climate, atmospheric nucleation is poorly understood. Recently, it has been shown that sulphuric acid and ammonia cannot explain particle formation rates observed in the lower atmosphere3. It is thought that amines may enhance nucleation4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, but until now there has been no direct evidence for amine ternary nucleation under atmospheric conditions. Here we use the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN and find that dimethylamine above three parts per trillion by volume can enhance particle formation rates more than 1,000-fold compared with ammonia, sufficient to account for the particle formation rates observed in the atmosphere. Molecular analysis of the clusters reveals that the faster nucleation is explained by a base-stabilization mechanism involving acid–amine pairs, which strongly decrease evaporation. The ion-induced contribution is generally small, reflecting the high stability of sulphuric acid–dimethylamine clusters and indicating that galactic cosmic rays exert only a small influence on their formation, except at low overall formation rates. Our experimental measurements are well reproduced by a dynamical model based on quantum chemical calculations of binding energies of molecular clusters, without any fitted parameters. These results show that, in regions of the atmosphere near amine sources, both amines and sulphur dioxide should be considered when assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on particle formation.
|Li et al. 2013. NAO implicated as a predictor of Northern Hemisphere mean temperature multidecadal variability. GRL (in press).
Abstract  The twentieth century Northern Hemisphere mean surface temperature (NHT) is characterized by a multidecadal warming–cooling–warming pattern followed by a flat trend since about 2000 (recent warming hiatus). Here we demonstrate that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is implicated as a useful predictor of NHT multidecadal variability. Observational analysis shows that the NAO leads both the detrended NHT and oceanic Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) by 15–20 years. Theoretical analysis illuminates that the NAO precedes NHT multidecadal variability through its delayed effect on the AMO due to the large thermal inertia associated with slow oceanic processes. A NAO-based linear model is therefore established to predict the NHT, which gives an excellent hindcast for NHT in 1971–2011 with the recent flat trend well predicted. NHT in 2012–2027 is predicted to fall slightly over the next decades, due to the recent NAO weakening that temporarily offsets the anthropogenically induced warming.
|Ny forskning om CO2s betydning for de globale temperaturer.
I de såkaldte forskerkredse under IPCC har der aldrig været tvivl om
CO2s afgørende betydning for den globale opvarmning,selvom nærstudier af målingerne i iskernerne i Antarktis har indikeret,at opvarmningsperioder opstod inden CO2 indholdet i atmosfæren begyndte at stige.
For IPCC er det helt utænkeligt,at CO2 ikke er den afgørende faktor for temperaturstigningerne,man kan ikke forestille sig,at andre naturlige klimapåvirkninger også kunne bevirke langvarige temperaturforandringer,her er ikke ment SO2 udledninger fra vulkanudbrud,som kun kan have en afkølende virkning på 10-15 år.
Det kom derfor helt belejligt for de etablerede klimaforskere,da forskergruppen Friederike Wagner et al. i 2002 fandt frem til,at den betydelige afkøling 8.400- 8.100 år B.P. skyldtes en tilbagegang af CO2 indholdet på ca. 25 ppm.
Forskergruppen havde undersøgt planterester fra den tid og ved at rekonstruere planternes spalteåbninger,nået frem til dette resultat.
Resultatet blev publiceret i fagmagasinet PNAS.
Da man i nogle forskerkredse ikke havde den store tiltro til målingen af CO2 indholdet på basis af planternes spalteåbninger,besluttede polar-forskergruppen Jinho Ahn et al. endnu engang at undersøge de udtrukne grønlandske iskerner.
Stor var deres overraskelse,da man istedet for en reduktion af CO2 indholdet på ca. 25 ppm fandt,at der var en mindre CO2 stigning på 1-2 ppm.
Konklusionen er,at kuldeperioden,som varede ca. 300 år,ikke kan have haft noget med CO2 indholdet i atmosfæren at gøre.
Hvad kan så have bevirket afkølingen dengang,kan det ikke have været den lave solaktivitet,som forskergruppen Werner Köfler et al. fra Innsbruck Uni omtalte i tidsskriftet The Holocene i 2005?.
I 2001 og 2004 havde også den svejtsiske forskergruppe Raimund Muscheler et al. omtalt denne sammenhæng mellem solen og klimaforandringerne omkring 8.200 år B.P. i tidsskriftet Qaternary Science Reviews.
Min these er,at solens aktivitet,sammen med kosmisk stråling og skydækket,kan tillægges den primære betydning for klimaforandringerne og de globale temperaturer.
I de såkaldte forskerkredse under IPCC har der aldrig været tvivl om
Nej Nej! Sådan er sammenhængen ikke, i forlængelse af fortidens forløb! Temperaturen stiger og Co2 øges efterfølgende når havene opvarmes hvorfor de kan indeholde mindre co2 se http://www.klimadebat.dk/forum/an-inconvenient-truth-d12-e2464-s80.php#post_39776
Citat fra linket: Al Gore viser 2 to grafer og illusterer for publikum at der er en sammenhæng. Videnskaben er ganske udemærket klar over at der er ca. 800 års lag fra temperatur-stigning til CO2 stigning som ikke ses på den graf Al Gore viser - alene pga. den store skala.
selvom nærstudier af målingerne i iskernerne i Antarktis har indikeret,at opvarmningsperioder opstod inden CO2 indholdet i atmosfæren begyndte at stige.
Eller man (klimavidenskaben) er godt klar over de 800 års lag (forsinkelse af co2-stigning når temperaturen stiger), som man altså godt er klar over!
Vi er nogle som ikke er helt med, og ikke helt ser den evidente sammenhæng i fortiden omkring at co2-driver temperaturen op, eller at co2 faktuelt er en signifikant drivhusgas som driver temperaturen op!
Redigeret d. 06-01-2014 20:17
Det korte svar er at CO2 både kan virke som en forcing (det gør det nu) eller en feedback (variationer ifbm istiderne). Se en bog om klimafysik, eks. David G. Andrews.
Ellers har Skeptical Science en god forklaring - det samme har Science of Doom, med masser af tekniske detaljer. Her:
For every complex problem, there is a solution that is simple, neat, and wrong.
|N A Nielsen★★★☆☆
|SRJ, jeg har det meget skidt med Skeptical Science, som jeg betragter som en ensidig propagandaside, mens jeg bestemt synes Science of doom er en rigtig god side at blive klog af.
Science of doom fra dit link til den udmærkede artikel:
I haven't watched Al Gore's movie but it appears he links past temperature rises with CO2 changes to demonstrate that CO2 increases are a clear and present danger. He relies on the ignorance of his audience. Or demonstrates his own.
At jeg så mener ice-core data indikerer en lav klimasensitivitet, fordi temperaturen kan falde helt i bund, før CO2-mængden i atmosfæren falder er en anden sag. Temperaturen har ikke brug for CO2'ens feed-back for at falde (se for eksempel afkølingen efter den seneste 'interglacial', perioden 120.000 - 110.000 år før nu) - så næppe heller for at stige. Når mængden af CO2 endelig falder, giver den mindre mængde CO2 ikke noget synderlig yderligere temperaturfald.
Temperatur-feed-back fra variationen i CO2 er lille, hvis man skal tro de data.
Redigeret d. 07-01-2014 20:00
|Jeg stødte på et indlæg omkring seneste kulde over nordamerika.
Og tilbage i 2011 skrev NOAA
- dét må da vist være et skoleeksempel på helgardering!
(cf.: "Damned if you do - damned if you don't").
|Vandstanden i Nordsøen.
Et nyt studie af Dr. Jürgen Jensen et al.,UNI-Siegen,viser at vandstandsstigningen i Nordsøen har været konstant siden beg. af det 20ende århundrede.
Der er intet der tyder på,at stigningen de sidste årtier skyldes AGW.
Redigeret d. 15-01-2014 16:48
|Rosenfeld et al. 2014. Climate Effects of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions. Science 343, 379-380:
"Aerosols counteract part of the warming effects of greenhouse gases, mostly by increasing the amount of sunlight reflected back to space. However, the ways in which aerosols affect climate through their interaction with clouds are complex and incompletely captured by climate models. As a result, the radiative forcing (that is, the perturbation to Earth's energy budget) caused by human activities is highly uncertain, making it difficult to predict the extent of global warming (1, 2). Recent advances have led to a more detailed understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions and their effects on climate, but further progress is hampered by limited observational capabilities and coarse-resolution climate models."
Offentligheden er jo ellers blevet bildt ind i årevis at klimavidenskaben var afklaret ("the science is settled") og at der ikke er nogen tvivl om at mennesket er skyld den opvarmning man så mellem årene 1975 og 1998 og som der i øvrigt ikke er set skyggen af siden...
|Trenberth et al. 2014. Earth's energy imbalance. Journal of Climate (in press):
Det er en ret interessant observation at raten af opvarmning af oceanerne åbenbart er aftaget i den samme periode, som den globale temperaturstagnation har fundet sted. Det var jo ellers spekuleret at "overskudsvarmen" fra drivhuseffekten skulle gemme sig dernede...
|Et nyt studie af Garfinkel et al. (2013) i JGR viser at der findes en negativ feedback via vanddamp, som stort set udligner stigninger i havoverfladetemperatur (SST).
Fra deres konklusion:
"The changes in water vapor and temperature due to projected future sea surface temperatures are of similar strength to, though slightly weaker than, that due directly to projected future CO2 , ozone, and methane. It is therefore of paramount importance that attention be paid to the precise pattern of SST warming in chemistry-ocean-atmosphere simulations performed for future assessments".
En opsummering kan læses her i Science Daily.
Studiet er desuden omtalt i Nature.
Kort sagt, uanset om SST øges ad naturlig eller mennesketskabt vej, så vil denne negative feedback fungere som en buffer der bringer temperaturen tilbage til ligevægt, hvilket stemmer glimrende med estimaterne for klodens temperatur over geologisk tid, som viser at der aldrig har eksisteret en løbsk drivhuseffekt på kloden, på trods af enorme ændringer i pCO2 og orbitale variationer:
|Lidt motion til 'smilebåndet'!
(Nå, det er måske heller ikke den allernyeste forskning!?).
Nu er MET Office jo heller ikke kendt for de mest præcise forudsigelser..
BBC: "Met Office global forecasts too warm in 13 of last 14 years"
The Times: "Heat is on as Met Office is accused of a 'warm bias' in annual forecasts"
Dem der har programmeret disse computermodeller må da siges at være nogle kvajkoder
|Svensmark overdriver betydningen af egen forskning...
|Henrik Svensmarks forskning
|Er fri forskning truet?
|Hvad skal der gøres for at fremme forskning i vedvarende energi og energibesparende teknologi?
|Ny forskning: Skovene kan tilpasse sig
|Meget lidt forskning i klimatilpasning